An earlier version of this article ran on November 23, 2011.
Late Thursday morning, as families are preparing to begin a day of Thanksgiving gluttony, some young football fan will glance at the television and ask the question we’ve all asked at some point in our lives:
“Why do the Lions always play on Thanksgiving?”
Thanksgiving Day Football in 2012
For decades, kickoff in Detroit has coincided with the setting of the table on Thanksgiving Day; and for decades the Lions have been irrelevant by the time Thanksgiving came around.
Last year, America was given a reprieve when the 7-3 Lions hosted the undefeated Green Day Packers in a game with playoff implications.
And, by historical standards, this year’s game isn’t bad. The Houston Texas will spend Thanksgiving in the Motor City.
While the Texans bring an NFL-best 9-1 record and a three-game division lead into Ford Field, they looked vulnerable Sunday, needing 13 minutes of overtime to beat the hapless Jaguars. Detroit has reverted to its losing ways and is currently 4-6 and last in the NFC North.
But the Lions aren’t completely out of the playoff picture. So, by Lions-on-Thanksgiving standards, Thursday’s game is certainly worth watching.
The Texans and Lions kick off at 11:30 Central Thursday on CBS.
Dallas, the other team to host an annual Thanksgiving game, hosts Washington at 3:15 Central on Fox. The night game, 7:20 Central on NBC, features the Patriots and Jets.
So why do the Lions always play on Thanksgiving?
For that matter, how did watching football become a Thanksgiving tradition as inexorable as carving the turkey, cylinders of cranberry sauce straight out of the can, and uncomfortable political discussions with extended family?
So, Why Do The Lions Always Play on Thanksgiving Day?
The Lions have played on Thanksgiving for as long as they’ve been the Lions.
The franchise began as the Portsmouth (OH) Spartans in 1930. In 1934, team owner G.A. Richards moved the team from the small steel town on the Ohio River to Detroit. Desperate to bring attention to the new team and its star quarterback Dutch Clark, Richards scheduled a Thanksgiving Day game against the reigning champion Chicago Bears.
The Lions were 10–1 going into that game; the Bears were 11-0. All 26,000 tickets for the game, held at University of Detroit Stadium, were sold out weeks before Thanksgiving.
The game, which the Bears won 19-16 en route to an NFL Western Division title, was such a success that Thanksgiving Day football in Detroit became an annual affair. The Lions have hosted a Thanksgiving game every year since World War II.
But football on Thanksgiving predates the Lions, and even the NFL.
We don’t know when two football teams first decided to face off on Thanksgiving, or why, but by the end of the 19th century, the tradition was already established.
The Beginning of Thanksgiving Day Football
The Universities of Michigan and Chicago met annually on Thanksgiving beginning in 1893. Even before then Michigan had played Thanksgiving games against the Chicago Athletic Association.
The Michigan-Chicago tradition ended in 1899 after Chicago coach Amos Alonzo Stagg refused to split gate receipts equally with the Wolverines or to give Michigan the right to choose the location of the 1900 game.
Stagg did not consider Michigan or other regional schools Chicago’s equals. Stagg insisted that the Wolverines play his team in Chicago; his Maroons would do just fine never setting foot in Ann Arbor.
So in 1899 the Wisconsin Badgers traveled to the Windy City for a Thanksgiving meeting with the Chicago Maroons. (Say what you want about Amos Alonzo Stagg. His name is still on the Big Ten championship trophy.)
High schools also have been playing Thanksgiving Day games since the 19th century.
In many states old rivals play each other on Thanksgiving, provided that one or both of the two schools haven’t advanced to the late rounds of the state tournament. Boston Latin and Boston English, two of the nation’s oldest secondary schools, have played on Thanksgiving every year since 1887.
The most storied Thanksgiving Day rivalry in the Midwest involves two schools just outside of St. Louis.
Kirkwood and Webster Groves have played on Thanksgiving since the late 1890s. This year, for the fourth straight season, the Thanksgiving game will involve the schools’ junior varsity squads, because one of the two varsity teams will be playing in the Missouri Class 5 State Championship Game.
This year the Kirkwood Pioneers, who beat Webster Groves in a playoff game a couple weeks back, will play for a title in St. Louis’s Edward Jones Dome. Kirkwood also advanced to the final last year, losing to Staley (Kansas City) 45-21. Webster Groves played in the championship game in 2009 and 2010, winning in 2009.
Pro football teams have played on Thanksgiving since the first professional leagues arose in the first decade of the 20th century:
- The New York Pro Football League, a predecessor of the modern-day NFL, settled its championship on Thanksgiving.
- The Ohio League, the NFL’s other ancestor, saved its most important games for the holiday.
- The first NFL season in 1920 featured 6 Thanksgiving Day games, 5 of which were shut-outs (including one scoreless tie) and 2 of which involved NFL teams playing non-league teams.
Throughout the 1920s and 1930s the number of Thanksgiving games and the teams involved varied from season to season.
Thanksgiving Day Dispute
In 1939 a dispute arose about the actual date of Thanksgiving.
Prior to that year, the holiday had always been the final Thursday of November. In 1939 that would have put Thanksgiving on November 30. Back then shoppers and retailers were loath to buy or sell Christmas gifts before Thanksgiving. So a late Turkey Date meant a short Christmas shopping season.
President Franklin Roosevelt was afraid that a November 30 Thanksgiving would have a negative impact on an economy that was still struggling to recover from the Great Depression. Under pressure from business leaders, FDR moved the holiday back one week, to November 23.
Several states refused to recognize the change. After all, the Thanksgiving high school football games were already scheduled.
That year there were two Thanksgivings.
The only NFL game played on either date was a November 23 clash between the Philadelphia Eagles and the Pittsburgh Steelers.
In 1941 Congress passed a law establishing Thanksgiving as the fourth Thursday in November.
The Growth of the NFL’s Thanksgiving Day Classic
For two decades after World War II (with the exception of a 1952 game between the Bears and the Dallas Texans), the NFL played only one game on Thanksgiving, hosted by the Detroit Lions.
In 1946 the upstart All-American Football Conference (AAFC) also played a Thanksgiving Day game. (The New York Yankees beat the Brooklyn Dodgers 21-7.)
The following year the AAFC played two games on the holiday, a trend that the league continued until it folded after the 1949 season (at which point three AAFC teams—the San Francisco 49ers, Cleveland Browns, and Baltimore Colts—joined the NFL).
When the American Football League (AFL) launched in 1960 it also had an annual Thanksgiving Day game on its schedule. The first 3 AFL Thanksgiving games involved the New York Titans, who would later become the Jets.
In 1966 Dallas Cowboys owner Tex Schramm jumped at the opportunity to host a second Thanksgiving NFL game. He saw it as a marketing opportunity—a chance to bring publicity to his young franchise.
Not to be outdone, the AFL added a second Thanksgiving game in 1967. For the next 3 seasons, American football fans were treated to four pro football games on the fourth Thursday of November.
When the AFL merged with the NFL in 1970, it gave up its two Thanksgiving games. Instead, one team from the new American Football Conference would play either the Lions or Cowboys.
With the exceptions of 1975 and 1977, when the St. Louis Cardinals replaced the Cowboys as a Turkey Day host, the NFL played exactly two Thanksgiving games—one in Detroit, one in Dallas—from 1970 until 2005.
In 2006 the league added a third game. For the first six seasons, the late game aired on the NFL Network. This year, it’s on NBC.
So anyone with an antenna can enjoy Thanksgiving football long after the dishes have been done and the remains of your holiday meal are sitting in a dozen Tupperware® containers in the fridge.
Not Just a U.S. Tradition
Though Thanksgiving football is as American as a deep-fried Snickers bar at the state fair, the tradition isn’t confined to the states.
The Canadian Football League (CFL) has held a Thanksgiving Day doubleheader each year since 1970. But don’t be shocked when you don’t see Argos-Als highlights tomorrow night on SportsCenter. The CFL plays its Thanksgiving Day Classic on Canadian Thanksgiving, which is the second Monday in October.
Football on Thanksgiving is as old as the sport itself. Even if the games and match-ups sometimes fall short, Thanksgiving wouldn’t be Thanksgiving without the Lions and Cowboys (or Kirkwood and Webster Grove).